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  • 咖啡在你身边-在咖啡馆,在农场,在未来的水的使用:第3集-在未来2016-06-06

    标签:咖啡在你身边


    大卫•Fasman BGA委员会会员

    水——从种子到杯子这是创造完美咖啡至关重要的。在咖啡周围存在很多其他必不可少的过程。从洗碗到咖啡馆里水浸制冰过程和在海洋中运送咖啡。水是这些系统中的主要驱动程序—任何需要灌溉的农场苗圃,加工方法,广泛的杯吸法及酿制过程。每个水系统都有它自己的严格规范—最后阶段的提取是最苛刻的。事实上,在第一章所提到的,从种子到杯子,做一杯用纸杯装的拿铁咖啡需要53加仑的水。从种子到杯子总用水量,一杯咖啡是34加仑。[ 1 ] [ 2 ]

    因此,咖啡需要大量新鲜的水,咖啡的需求量以及淡水资源的减少,问题就出现了:我们如何才能维持这个行业呢?这是一个合理的问题,我向你保证有一个答案。答案要求我们注意到我们在咖啡馆里使用水的方式,提高咖啡产业在农业方面的认识,最重要的是提倡和协助建立和实施系统,最重要的是提倡并协助系统的创建和保存水的在种子链的所有点上节约用水。

    未来的水在咖啡馆


    煮咖啡的水有非常严格的规范–作为麦斯威尔科隆纳达什伍德指出去年在他在研讨会的讲话(在他的优秀作品咖啡用水)——即使不一定保证相同规格的提取。TDS(溶解性总固体)和PPM(百万分率)的测量太普通了。咖啡的味道,更多的是与水在不同地区的土壤。这是说矿物含量在不同的区域变化;所以150ppm的水在旧金山的味道会不同于150PPM的水在纽约或芝加哥甚至在同一个城市的咖啡馆。[3]

    随着更多的咖啡馆投资于其水质,我们必须记住,创造优质的水还需要建立废水。我说到反渗透的过程,实际上是唯一的方法来实现和保持水的特殊性。老反渗透系统生成的水1:1比例的好水和废水。发展了这种过滤技术,领先的系统创建水在4:1的比例“浪费”。 等一下我会讨论这个“废水”,但首先让我们检查水的成本。

    用水成本

    在美国,水和污水处理率达到5-15%的逐年上升,在可预见的未来预计将继续以这样的速度增长。[ 4 ]咖啡馆平均每天可以使用600至1000加仑的水。[ 5 ]根据美国自来水厂协会的一加仑自来水的平均成本是0.004美元。目前在每天600加仑的咖啡馆里只支付2.40美元每天。但让我们考虑每年增加10%,看看20年后的未来。每天2.40美元变成了17.76美元–几乎是目前价格的七倍半,–和每月账单532.80美元(以一个月30天)。这是一个不小的九牛一毛。

    考虑到目前的低成本的水,它一般不包括在计算饮料或商品的成本。但随着水的价格上涨,所以将其列入饮料的成本。让我们记住,传统咖啡是98-99%的水甚至意大利浓缩咖啡是88-92%的水。抵消水费上涨不一定是可能的,但平衡上升的成本通过以下几个技巧是可行的。

    咖啡馆Maintiaining质量的同时最大限度地提高水效率

    这里有一个列表的方法可以节约咖啡馆用水级别:

    1、利用投手冲洗器。这些方便的工具可以大大减少水的使用。按照百分比,制作越多的饮料,就节约了更多的水。
    2、停止使用侵勺缸。侵勺缸像一个漏水的水龙头。有更多有效的方法清洁用具。
    3、Install aerators on all faucets. You know those screens at the end of faucets? They are there to deliver a non-splashing stream of water – but they also substantially reduce the amount of water in the stream. Sometimes up to 6 times less than a faucet with no aerator.
    4、使用高效水预冲洗喷雾阀。这些管子末端的喷嘴用于冲洗掉盘子在把它们放在洗碗碟机前。咖啡馆很大一部分水消费是清洗杯碟,利用最高效的预清洗喷雾阀可以发现将有助于大大减少水的使用。
    5、安装节水洗碗机。像之前所说的,清洗杯碟是占水消费的很大一部分。利用最节水洗碗机将有助于减少用水量。
    6、Use air cooled ice machines. Air cooled ice machines use substantially less water than older water cooled machines. They may be slightly more expensive right now, but the machine will pay for the difference, and more, in savings over the course of its life.
    7、Install water efficient toilets. Yep, toilets. Restrooms are used extensively throughout the day and the more efficient the toilets, the less water that is flushed away.
    8、Utilize the most efficient water filtration. I know we need the best water to make coffee, but let’s try and use the most efficient water filtration systems possible.
    9、Be mindful. We need to start actively thinking about the water we use in the café. Such as how we use sinks, wash dishes, rinse filters, pre-heat vessels, and brew coffee.
    10、Repurpose waste water if possible.

    As mentioned before, “waste water” is created by using reverse osmosis to filter water. The water shouldn’t be consumed, but because it is classified as waste, according to some states, it must be discarded and cannot be repurposed. It is our job as an industry to advocate for the usage of this “waste water” for restrooms, dish washing, mop water, and any other use for which it would not be consumed by people.

    The Future of Water at the Farm

    Coffee production requires a huge amount of water. From watering seedlings, to any necessary field irrigation, and of course processing – coffee production is water intensive. In fact, a single container of traditionally processed washed coffee (about 18 tons) requires more than a quarter of a million gallons of water from seed to container.[6] Some coffee growing areas may have access to lots of water, but usage is not the only concerning factor. The most concerning aspects of water usage at the farm lie in the wastewater from mills and fields as well as watershed runoff. Problems that arise from wastewater and watershed runoff include nutrient and pesticide contaminated water – which affects nearby ecosystems as well as drinking water – and soil degradation due to deforestation, which can lead to a host of other problems.

    Maximizing Water Efficiency and Minimizing Ecological Impact in Processing Methods

    So let’s discuss coffee processing for a moment. There is a clear affinity for washed processed coffees in the specialty coffee industry. That being said, it seems like there are more high quality coffees coming out every year using other processing methods, like pulp-natural or full natural. Washed coffees, by far, require the most water usage and create the most waste water of any processing method. The pollution load from waste water produced by washed processing can be 30 to 40 times greater than that found in urban sewage.[7] What can be done about this? A lot.

    There have been substantial developments in creating machinery that is much less water intensive and much more ecologically friendly. Some of these machines include eco-pulpers and mechanical demucilagers. This type of machinery has been found to reduce the amount of water used from 60 liters per pound of parchment to as low as 11 liters per pound.[8] On top of that, the creation of biodigesters – machines that take waste water and turn it into bio-fuel – are becoming more common. The barrier that still exists for farmers and processors is acquiring this machinery – referring to the monetary investment.

    As an industry, if we are going to continue our demand for high quality washed process coffees, we must advocate for, and assist with, the instillation of this machinery for the regions we purchase coffee from. Even though it may be financially advantageous to have this machinery in the long run, the initial investment is substantial, and one that many small farmers can not afford.

    With all this discussion about washed coffee, the question arises – so what about natural processed coffee? “The processing of natural Arabicas require little or no water at all, and where water is used – in Brazil, for example, for flotation – it can be recycled for several days and the degree of contamination is very low, if any.”[9] First of all, natural processing has historically produced lower quality coffee than washed coffees. But, as Tim Hill from Counter Culture said in an interview with Sprudge, “The way we think about natural processing now is very rudimentary; natural processing really hasn’t changed. Washed processing has changed a lot—there’s new equipment, new machines, new technologies that have really changed over the last 60–70 years. Natural processing is still very low technology; a much more kind of a rustic process.”[10] Natural processing can be tricky due to the heightened possibility of over fermentation. But as Hill notes, “You’d be lying to yourself if you don’t think that there’s some fermentation happening and being incorporated into the coffee itself. The question is, how much of that is a problem? What are the things we associate with bad fermented natural coffees, and what do we associate with good fermented coffees?”[11]

    The answer to these questions are somewhat subjective, depending on the flavor profile desired. But one thing I believe is we need to be more open minded about how we grade coffees. The “right” degree of fermentation in natural coffees can produce exceptional quality. Every year, I taste more high quality natural processed coffees than the year prior. This is partially due to a small increase in demand, but also due to education at the farm level. We need to help farmers who are committed to naturally processing coffees. We need to help advance the technologies (which are few) for naturally processing coffee. An example of this is the drying of natural coffees on raised beds to increase airflow and decrease the chances of over fermentation and mold.

    In the end, the question is not washed or natural, as both processing methods can produce specialty grade coffee. The question is, as an industry, how can we assist in advancing quality while minimizing ecological impact for both processing methods. There are answers for both methods.

    Washed Process

    1、As an industry we must advocate and assist in the creation and implementation more water efficient technologies including eco-pulpers, mechanical demucilagers, and bio digesters.
    2、We need to educate farmers on the impact waste water has on the environment and urge them to reconsider how they dispose of waste water.
    3、We need to educate farmers on the impact of coffee growth on soil conditions as well as drinking water downstream.
    4、We should encourage the growth of coffee without total deforestation in order to help retain good soil conditions.

    Natural Process

    1、We need to advocate and assist in the advancement of technologies required to produce high quality natural processed coffees.
    2、We need to educate farmers on techniques that can help with issues of over fermentation, molding, and sorting.
    3、We need to be open minded about natural process coffees. No, they don’t have the same flavor profile as washed coffees, but is that truly a bad thing?

    Conclusion

    In my opinion, water is the biggest component of coffee from seed to cup. It is integral at all points of the supply chain. With roasters and cafes being the final link of the chain, it is our job to educate the public on water usage throughout the chain. It is also our responsibility to advocate, educate, and assist coffee growing regions with new technologies, techniques, and ideas for how to reduce water usage, minimize waste, and promote healthy soil conditions. By doing these things, we can ensure the future of specialty coffee as an industry dedicated to sustainability, ecological responsibility, and of course great coffee.
     
    [1] SCAA Fact Sheet: Specialty Coffee and Water Conservation
    [2] SCAA Green Guide Module 2: Water
    [3] Colonna-Dashwood, M. (2015, July 6). The Simplest Ingredient. Lecture presented at 2015 SCAA Symposium, Seattle.
    [4] SCAA Fact Sheet: Specialty Coffee and Water Conservation
    [5] SCAA Green Guide Module 2: Water
    [6] Sheridan, M. (2012, August 13). Coffee and Water Resources at Origin. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
    [7] Brando, C. (2013, July 8). The Use of Water in Processing Retrieved December 30, 2015.
    [8] Kubota, L. (2013, July 8). Beyond the Quality of the Water in Your Cup. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
    [9] Brando, C. (2013, July 8). The Use of Water in Processing. Retrieved December 30, 201.
    [10] Wolcheck, R.(2015, October 8). What Is Natural Coffee?. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
    [11] Wolcheck, R.(2015, October 8). What Is Natural Coffee?. Retrieved December 30, 2015.

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